“First, What kind of life was lived in this place, that is, Why and how did its builders build as they did?
And second, what rules with general validity and applicability did they follow?”
Carroll William Westfall, Learning From Pompeii.

Sunday, December 2, 2012

Richmond's Second and Third Markets

As detailed in an earlier post, the legislation through which the city was chartered in 1782 established a common council and court of hustings as the local government, a clerk of the market, and a sergeant. A city market and market square were also mandated by the charter. The newer, less developed, and more elevated section of the city located on Shockoe Hill was selected as the site of the new capitol. The state authorities, encouraged by Thomas Jefferson, planned a new city around six adjoining public squares on the hill. Jefferson’s program for the new city, enacted in 1780, included placing the market on one of the squares. The authorities, however, demurred, undoubtedly because there was insufficient population on the hill to support it. Instead, the new market was placed directly between the old town of Richmond to the east of Shockoe Creek and the new capitol city on the hill to the west.

Although the city began with one principal public market at the crossing of Shockoe Creek, as the city grew subsidiary markets would be needed in new quarters or neighborhoods. These would be built as diluted versions of the First Market, responding to and reinforcing the organizational structure of the city, in much the same way that, in later years, branch libraries and post offices would express through their relative scales its hierarchical order. Richmond would have three public markets in place by the 1890s, each serving separate neighborhoods.

The historic relationship between a successful market and a traditional conception of the city's ideal order is shown by the repeated attempts to establish a prominent market on Shockoe Hill, where Jefferson envisaged a market as part of his new capital.  A "Shockoe Market" was set up to serve this area on the north side of Broad at Twelfth streets in the early 179os.  The General Assembly in 1793 retroactively gave the “Market-House erected on Shockoe Hill” the same privileges and regulations as the first market [An Act ascertaining the Boundaries of the City of Richmond, and for other purposes. November 27, 1793]. A sketch (below) shows the Shockoe Market Hall to have consisted of a long arcaded frame building similar to contemporary market halls in small towns across the state. At about the same time, the common council had rejected a plan 1793 to place this new Shockoe Market in the middle of Broad Street like some new markets that were inserted into existing street grids in other cities.

Shockoe Hill Market Hall at Broad and 12th (on the right) with the unfinished Academy
Building beyond from a sketch by Latrobe, 1797 or 98 
[From Bryan Clark Green, 1997]. 

 Site of 1793 Shockoe Market ("Old Market Square") near the Baptist Church [Young's Map of 1817].

Like the first market, the new market square was located off the grid. It was placed on the eastward slope of Shockoe Hill on a tract known as “Watson’s Tenement” where many public buildings were to be located in the coming decades. The part of this tract that had been laid off in lots was officially included in the city in 1793 by city ordinance. These would include the Academy, the Theater (and, therefore, Monumental Church), as well as the Medical College near the top of the hill and, eventually, the Lancastrian School and the City Jail at the bottom. Benjamin Henry Latrobe also proposed sites for his planned theater/hotel and church of c. 1798 at this key nodal location where the main route (Broad Street to Governor Street) turned to descend the hill. The new market appears to have failed to become established. 

The 1858 Adams Map shows the Second Market of 1834 at the upper left in relation 

to the First Market (unlabeled near the creek) at the lower right corner.

It was not until the upper town had grown in density and diversity a decade later that it could rise to urbanity by the  successful establishment of a second market. By that time, Jefferson’s program for the new metropolis on the hill was, for all practical purposes, complete.  At about the same time, the urban governing function was separated from the old First Market and moved to Shockoe Hill, where the City Court (City Hall) occupied a Neoclassical temple-form building behind and in an axial relationship to the Capitol, facing the city’s principal axis, Broad Street. 
The "New" or "Second" Market filled a lot on the southeast corner of Sixth and Marshall streets on Shockoe Hill in 1817. There are very few images showing the market house of that period. The illustration above shows it to the right. It was arcaded like its predecessor in the valley below.
The extension of Richmond's Second Market on the north side of Marshall Street 
after 1834,  showing the additional Market Hall on the left and the new square to the left 
of the central lot line [Virginia Mutual Policy of 1865].

The market square was expanded across Marshall Street to the north in 1834, and the large open area was eventually lined by shops on the north and east and by another market hall, also of a single story in height. It appears that the butchers had expanded in the original location and needed an enclosed hall, so that produce sellers needed a new market of their own.  The old hall south of Marshall was probably enclosed at this time to serve as a more sanitary meat market. 

Richmond’s Second Market on the 1876 Beers Map. The original c. 1817 Market Hall is on the south side of Marshall and the Market Square of 1834 is to the north (north is to the top on each).

 The 1889 Sanborn map shows the Headhouse/Police Station  with an arched opening on 
each side as is visible in the 1865 image below, by this time surrounded by shed roofs. 
Separate facilities for sale of fish and a large hay scale were features of most markets at this time. A new Meat Market replaced the c. 1817 market hall south of East Marshall in 1885. In Richmond the duties of the Weight Master, a city employee who certified the quality and weight of all fodder, hay, and other "long forage," were spelled out in a city ordinance dated Oct. 2, 1827.  The weight master or his deputy was employed from sunup until sundown every day except Sunday making sure that citizens were receiving the correct weight of animal feed for the price they paid.

By 1851, the hucksters had begun to block Sixth Street as far north as Broad and council responded to local concerns by extending the market boundaries to Broad and planning a police station, since the watch house was nearly two miles away at the First Market. In 1853, the city replaced the 1834 market house with a new open market house with a brick loggia at the south end containing the police station. The new hall, supported on tows of cast iron columns, also ranged along the west side of the 1834 square. A delicate trio of fanlights made a transom between each cast iron column (see also the William Sheppard illustration below).
A contemporary article commended the new market for its strength, durability, taste, neatness and convenience." He admired the two belfries. The one on the police station contained a 700-pound bell used to open and close the market and to sound alarms. The six-room police station continued cells that reflected badly on the uncomfortable "cage" that housed reprobates at the old market [Richmond's Flowering Second Market, Virginia Calvacade, Spring 1956]. A fish market, added in 1856, and the city scales were housed in separate structures to the east. Along the north side and an alley running along the east side the square was hedged in with shops. 

Leslie's Weekly illustration of 1865 showing the City Dogcatcher at the Second Market
with the 1817 Market Hall at right and the c 1834 Headhouse/Police Station
at the center with bell tower

The New Market, Corner of Market [sic] and Sixth Street, Richmond, Va.
[Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper 10 Aug 1865]. This appears to show the 
market hall on the north side of Marshall Street from the wide arch of the
 Headhouse/Police Station.     
The illustrations above show the head house which fronted the 1853 market hall and its interior. Like the First Market Hall in the Shockoe Creek Valley, rebuilt at the same time, it housed the police station and had a cupola and bell on the roof, looking not unlike the arched tower at the First Market. The elegant structure was designed as a two-story, classically organized loggia, with a parapet roof. It took the classic form of the medieval/Renaissance town hall or broletto, where a meeting hall for local government was superimposed over an arcaded market at ground level.  By 1889, it was surrounded by a projecting canopy (see the Sanborn Map above).
The Tholsel, Town Hall, Kilkenny, Republic of Ireland, 1761 

Witney Town Hall and Market, Whitney, Oxfordshire, England, 1770s

 The city built a new Second Market Hall or Sixth Street Meat Market, a modern sanitary facility, in 1886 on the site of the c 1817 market house.It was built by Joseph Heppert [Virginia Calvacade Spring 1956]. The regular pilasters (supporting a memorable series of bull's heads), the battered stone water table, and the segmental arched openings are remarkably similar to the Third Market building of 1892 seen below.  

The new Sixth Street Market Hall of 1886 [Valentine Richmond History Center]

Sixth Street looking south with northern part of market, including hucksters to right and the rebuilt "head house" with cupola at left. The meat market can be seen beyond [Library of Congress].
The head house/police station at the Second or Sixth Street Market was rebuilt in the late nineteenth century. The north section of the market with the head house, cupola, and bell, is seen in a pre-1909 postcard above.
According to a contemporary article, the city's three markets expanded in the last two decades of the twentieth century. In 1900, the First Market at 17th Street produced $9,000 in revenue, the Second Market at Sixth Street between $7,000 and $8,000, and the Third, located in the city's West End, only $1,000. In 1895, the city ceased taxing vendors from outside the city limits and substituted a modest sanitary tax from those who left behind dirt or trash. The Sixth Street Market, being centrally located, was the most popular. 

By 1900, most of the population purchased foodstuffs in the city's three markets, rather than from itinerant street-vendors.  They made  many of their purchases from from the huckster, who, according to the terms in use at the time, was "the regular dealer, who rents his stall in the market by the month, and has an established trade at a small scale." The "truck gardener, who sells from his cart his own home-raised productions," made up the other major class of vendors [The Markets of Richmond: When They were Established and How They Pay, unidentified newspaper, 10 Feb. 1900, files, The Valentine].   

The Sixth Street market was long regarded, from the point of view of white visitors, as one of Richmond's most colorful points of interest.  Indeed, it probably served as the principal public intersection between the races. Articles written in the 1950s, as the market was failing, document the importance of the city's markets in the eyes of both vendors and customers. 

While the meat and fish were indoors, the exterior of the market served as a large and popular flower market. It drew national attention as a busy market for Christmas greens in the winter. The market provided a popular subject for artists, including illustrator William Sheppard in 1875, local color painter Margaret Dashiell in the teens and twenties, Teresa Pollack in the 1930s, and Bell Worsham in 1956. The drawings usually show white patrons passing through the picturesque and clamorous setting of the market.

William Sheppard, Selling Christmas Greens, Harper's Weekly, Cover for
the Christmas edition, 1875. The Sixth Street market in in the background.
Teresa Pollack, corner of Sixth and Marshall streets, 1930
[Virginia Calvacade, Spring, 1956.]

A contemporary "local color" piece by columnist George Rogers describes the vendors, mostly elderly black women, who "sat crunched on boxes or leg stools, clustered around an old lard tin or iron kettle from which heat radiated from . . . charcoal or small stubs of wood. Their lower limbs were wrapped in old bed quilts, horse blankets or any available protection. On their bodies were all the clothes they possessed, supplemented with a couple of masculine coats and vests. The head covering was either an old straw hat or a felt hat that had withstood several years of usage, and protruding from the headgear were several pig tails decorated in red or white braid. The finishing touch of the makeup was a short-stem corn cob pipe from which curling smoke indicated the vendor was in business" [George W. Rogers, News Leader 24 Nov. 1956]. 

Another nostalgic writer recalled how "for generations that stretch back into the closing antebellum years, city dwellers have been able to observe the cycle of the seasons in the appearance and subsequent absence of blooms and plants. Throughout the procession of these hundreds of seasons, negro women have sat in this scene, an invariable fixture in theses colorful banks of blossom. . . . Hucksters from the nearby countryside hopefully exhibit their home-grown vegetables in the same market area. Time was when these men came into town before daybreak, riding in open or covered wagons or two-wheeled covered Hanover carts. Once arrived, they built fires on the street to take the bit from frosty mornings" [Richmond's Flowering Second Market, Virginia Calvacade, Spring 1956].

1909 Market and Armory at Sixth and Marshall streets, same view as the 

Leslie's Weekly view from 1865 seen above

Second Market- Detail of 1924-5 Sanborn Map of Marshall between 
6th and 7th Streets. It shows the Armory Building to the north and the Meat
 Market to the north of Marshall Street.
Mid-20th c view of Sixth Street Market shoppers and vendors, no date,
from Sanford, Richmond, 1975

  The town hall form, of a market with a civic meeting room above, was reiterated there when, in 1909, when a new, appropriately castellated Market and Armory was built on the same site. The market function was enclosed at the ground floor and the upper floor was dedicated to public events and the use of the Richmond Light Infantry Blues as an armory. The Sixth Street Market operated in this building until it was uprooted for the construction of the Sixth Street Marketplace development in 1985. The market function here was made visually secondary to the military. 

Terra cotta bull's head from the Second (Sixth Street) Meat Market as

reused at Seventeenth Street 

An article in the Richmond News Leader on 14 February, 1956 recounted the story of the Sixth Street Market. The city wanted the site of the Meat Market for a new parking lot to support downtown shopping. The 17 stalls were at that time rented by  total of six vendors and three stalls in the dilapidated building were vacant. The 1886 Meat Market was demolished and two of the ornamental bull's heads were placed at the Seventeenth Street Market. It was, sadly, demolished in the 1964 to make way for a multi-story parking garage. 

The Second or Sixth Street Market area from Broad, 2nd 1/4 20th c., 
showing the Blues Armory at rear with the Meat Market 
in front of it with the terra cotta bull's heads visible along 
the top of the facade [Sanford 1975]

Market halls declined in importance as time passed. Their function was transformed in the late nineteenth century by the development of new technologies for the production and preservation of food and new concerns for hygiene. These changes, coupled with the growth of truck farming and neighborhood grocery stores, in the words of Bryan Clark Green, "removed the market house from the economic, administrative, and social center of Virginia's towns."  

Third Market, Richmond Virginia [VCU Archives]

As a result of the growth of population in the western end of the city, the city planned, in 1881, a third market for the area known as Sydney (today's Fan District). The Richmond Third Market hall was built on West Main Street in the early 1890s, designed by Richmond architect Marion J. Dimmock. Like its predecessors, it took the traditional form of an arcaded market, only on a much more ambitious scale. Like the one-story Sixth Street Meat Market of 1886, which it closely resembled, the Third Market Hall consisted of a single, large open room lit and ventilated by a prominent roof monitor. 

The market did not, however, prosper at the Sydney location and was closed in 1906. It  was converted for use in the following year as a civic assembly hall, with the addition of a vestibule, dressing rooms, and a rostrum. It was known as the City Auditorium until it was replaced by the Mosque in 1928. It was rehabilitated by Virginia Commonwealth University as a gym in 1981, expanded in 2009 as the Cary Street Recreational Center. 

Wednesday, October 24, 2012

Cameron Carpenter Organ Concert at Richmond's Byrd Theater

Saturday night’s performance at the Byrd Theater by organist Cameron Carpenter ranged across the magical realm of organ music as a theatrical medium. His performance brought out the extraordinary significance of the Byrd Theater to the city of Richmond and of the American Movie Palace to the nation at large as a high point in American theatrical history. The theater organ, a product of American art at its most productive and assimilative moment, arguably represents the modern apogee of the organ as a symphonic instrument. 

Allied with (silent) film, the theater organ, with its expanded capabilities, dynamic range, and tonal color, became the American response to Wagner’s Gesamtkunstwerk, a universal or comprehensive work of art. Similarly, the Beaux-arts unity of design embodied in American movie palaces like the Byrd, combining sculpture, architectural articulation, and spectacle, was the populist heir of the great opera houses of late nineteenth-century Europe. Here the American dream was pursued by a restless population longing, not only for transformative spectacle, but for political, psychological, and social resolution.   

Like the music of the theater organ, the movie palace seamlessly assimilated every reference in the architectural catalog in service to the great democratic project of American cinema, unafraid of excess or overstatement in the service of its artistic goals. In addition, the organ was fully incorporated into the building’s form, acoustically and visually. The performer was given a central place in the design, visible before the film was shown and invisible during the screening. The organ's enhanced sound was capable of enfolding the viewer into a seamless landscape of sound.   

The very committed audience for Saturday's virtuoso performance can attest to Cameron Carpenter’s mastery of this particular, very balky, but sensitive instrument on Cary Street. Out of it he can coax an astonishingly subtle range of sounds, fading and blending from rank to rank of the Byrd’s massive Wurlitzer. Music seemed to shade gradually from one tone color to another and melodic lines were inevitably embroidered and overlaid by complex waves of counterpoint only to emerge later, transformed.

Theater organs are especial favorites of Carpenter, who said in a recent interview that  “from the beginning, my concept of the organ had nothing to do with the retiring figure in the organ loft. But rather, someone playing an ornate organ with Mary Pickford on the screen, looking very much like Clark Gable. I had no idea of the organ as a religious instrument.” Carpenter used every bell and whistle that the instrument possesses (except the ocean surf machine) even as he made great use of the organ’s creaky dynamics. At times, the Byrd’s stage sported distant brass bands, choirs of harps, and even what sounded like a flight of bees. 

Carpenter allowed the organ its full range of color and power, and devoted most of his time to improvisation on music written for the cinema, which he interspersed with wry commentary about the instrument. The Byrd’s great theater organ wears its years lightly, although it suffers from aging equipment and wiring. Carpenter said that playing this organ, which in spite of its condition is "an especially expressive and articulate instrument," was “like traveling through a country of extraordinary beauty, but instead of riding on a train, you were using one of those carts that are powered by a handle that you have to pump up and down.” Since the combination action, which allows the organist to preset specific arrangements of pipes, is out of order, Carpenter was forced to add an additional layer of complexity to his performance as his hands darted up to change stops. 

His concert combined subtle and elegant transformations of Bach with his own interpretations of movie music, turning themes from unexpected or supposedly banal sources into rich, strange, and very personal music, always based in the great inherited tradition of harmony and counterpoint. Although his flamboyant clothes and hairstyle belied it, his presence on the stage was modest and witty and always about the music.

He began with a merrily ghoulish version of “My Favorite Things,” part of a collection of improvisations from cinematic and classical sources, including a oddly insistent “Somewhere over the Rainbow” and a playful “Raindrops Keep Falling on My Head.” This was followed, most memorably, by the music from “Willy Wonka” by Leslie Bricusse, which fascinated Carpenter as a child. He gave it leave to be as "weird and bizarre" as the movie for which it was written, and perhaps as disturbing. He followed this with a powerful reinterpretation of Bach’s Fantasia and Fugue in G minor, demonstrating his astonishing technical and interpretive prowess.

On his return this year to tour the United States from his current base in Germany, Carpenter is surprised at his changed perspective of his native land. He ended the evening with a group of three improvisations based on songs, each of which he had chosen to represent some aspect of America. The second of these was “God Bless America,” which he lovingly embroidered. The last was “Dixie,” which he began almost as a Widor fugue, but which, after a series of colorful variations, ended in an elegiac whisper. 

Tuesday, October 23, 2012

Repost- The City's First Market (updated)

Commerce must always be civilized. A market’s prosperity provides the material basis for the citizens’ pursuit of justice, but the goods of the market are not the same as the good of the citizens. The manner of conducting the market, and the visible place the market occupies in the city, must make clear this hierarchical distinction that allows the civic values that embody transcendental ends to predominate in the lives of the citizens.

Carroll William Westfall. The City in the Image of Man.  
Journal of Anthropological Psychology No. 11, 2002.

Richmond's rise from provincial entrepot town to the status of a city occurred as it became the capital of the new commonwealth. One of the first acts of the new city government, founded in 1782, was to provide a market. The city was able to endow the market with a hall in which to conduct and regulate the market with fourteen years.

The town had earlier been given permission to hold two-day fairs on the second Thursday in May and November of each year "for the sale and vending of all manner of cattle, vitals  provisions, Goods, wares, merchandises whatever," as part of the act of establishment in 1742. Such fairs, often organized where there was no market, were occasions of general celebration as well as commerce. An act of 1705 provided for twice-weekly market days and annual fairs in the towns of the colony. The first fair to be mentioned in the Virginia Gazette was organized on St. Andrew's Day in Hanover County in 1736. The fair included horse races and prizes were awarded for country fiddling, dancing, singing, football, jumping and wrestling. A pair of silk stockings were given to the "handsomest maid" at the fair (Virginia Gazette, November 26, 1736 quoted in Colonial Williamsburg research paper
"Markets and Fairs, c 1950).
The reconstruction of the 1757 Market House at Colonial Williamsburg is similar to the first market house at Richmond.

Study of the Richmond market's history in the context of American and European traditions makes it clear just how closely associated the market is with the life of the city.  As Carl Lounsbury has observed: “the most basic function and one integral to towns of a certain size and economic diversity is the marketing of goods, particularly foodstuffs such as meat, poultry, cheese, eggs, butter, and vegetables. . . . At the heart of any town's prosperity was market day where tradesmen and itinerant higglers retailed their wares in the open market place. . . . The local market was not a free-wheeling, open-ended emporium of petty capitalists, although there was a strong push to make it so in many English and American towns in the eighteenth century, rather it was a highly-regulated system watched over by the clerk of the market in concert with other corporate officials” [Carl Lounsbury. The Williamsburg Market House: Where’s the Beef? 1990, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Library Research Report Series 245].    

Market halls, in the eighteenth century, before most regulatory functions were hived off to purpose-built city halls and jails, were the centers and regulators of civic life. Here, in larger towns and cities, were located the official scales and timepieces, constables and lockups, magistrates and courts, and the public records. Public punishment, including floggings and duckings, as well as important announcements, took place at the market. Important announcements, such as elections, were made by a public crier as ordered by the Town Sergeant [An Act, to amend the Charter of the City of Richmond. January 11, 1803].

In Virginia, most large towns acquired market halls of one or two stories at some point in the eighteenth century as commerce grew large enough to demand one. As Carl Lounsbury has shown, a hall was needed to provide shade and a place from which to hang meat. It was essential for its operation that it be as accessible as possible, well lit, and ventilated. The earliest hall was built in Norfolk in 1737, supported on wooden posts.  A similar one was built in Annapolis in the early 1750s, and in Williamsburg in 1757. The Fredericksburg Market House of 1775 was of brick and held rooms above for dancing and cards. Portsmouth had a two-story market house by 1796. Norfolk built a one-story market house in 1805 in Norfolk along the center of Market Street, replaced in 1814. Most markets were flanked by extended sheds or eaves, such as the six-foot overset on each side of the Norfolk Market House in 1736 or the sheds mentioned in other ordinances elsewhere in the state over the next century [Lounsbury, 1990]. 
Markets, since time immemorial, were located and ordered to serve the public interest. They were places of carefully regulated competition, where sellers were licensed, weights and measures were standardized, quality was guaranteed, and selling outside the market not permitted. Medieval traditions of market laws, continued in the New World, functioned to protect citizens from profiteering, fraud, and cheating, provided a ready supply of high-quality produce to townspeople, and guaranteed the "market peace," which meant a safe and profitable setting for both consumers and vendors. This applied to foodstuffs as well as other produce of the farms around the city. Sellers were not permitted to sell outside the market.   
The Halle au Blé at Paris

In his plan for the new buildings serving the state capital, Jefferson originally visualized the new market at Richmond as occupying one of the six blocks he proposed for Shockoe Hill. That he had imagined it as an architecturally distinguished structure is clear from his first thought on viewing the great new glass-lighted dome of the Meal Market (Halle au Blé) of Paris in 1786. In a famous letter to Maria Cosway he imagined it as a model for a market in Richmond: 'My visit to Legrand & Molinos had publick utility for it's object. A market is to be built in Richmond. What a commodious plan is that of Legrand & Malinas: especially if we put on it the noble dame of the Halle aux bleds."  

As built the city's new market hall was on a much more traditional and modest plan. The Richmond City Market, like the Henrico County Courthouse and the Capitol, was built on public land off the official grid. In this case the market stood on the commons or public land along Shockoe Creek, on the edge of the original town. It served as the seat of one of the three governing bodies hierarchically ordering the life of the city and promoting the civic good. The county seat remained in the center of the old town along the river, while the state government established itself in Jefferson's redesigned new city on the hill to the west. It was not surprising that the city government placed itself directly in the middle. The market hall was built at the hinge between the two sections of the city, at the point where the main road crossed Shockoe Creek, not far from the boat landing and the long-established tobacco warehouses.    

Richmond was chartered as a city in 1782. The legislature established a common council and court of hustings as the local government, a clerk of the market, and a sergeant. The new section of the city on Shockoe Hill was selected as the site of the new capitol. The state authorities, encouraged by Thomas Jefferson, planned to make a new city around and on six adjoining public squares on the hill. Jefferson’s program for the new city, enacted in May 1779, included a market on one of the squares. One year later, however, a new act placed the market below the hill, on the west side of Shockoe Creek, probably due to this more appropriate location for purposes of business [An Act, for the removal of the Seat of Government, May, 1779, and An Act, for locating the Publick Squares, to enlarge the Town of Richmond, and for other purposes, May, 1780].

The Richmond City Market in 1814. Virginia Mutual Assurance Society policy. The building to the left is the end of a new brick row on Main Street west of the “Market Bridge” over Shockoe Creek.

The “Market of the City of Richmond” was founded by city ordinance in 1782. It was sited on the side of Seventeenth Street on public land beside the green, sloping common along Shockoe Creek next to Main Street and near the crossing, where it was convenient to the landing, county roads, and set apart from the town. The first, temporary, market house was supported on locust posts. Temporary "arbors" were set up nearby to provide shade to outdoor sellers. Wednesdays and Saturdays were set apart as “grand market days.” All goods carried into the city on those days were to remain in the public market until noon. 

The market was significantly located at the hinge point between the new and old cities, at the nexus of major roads and port. During the next 150 years the City Market, with its daughter markets, became, for most residents and their suppliers, the center of urban life. For the first one hundred years, the market was emblematic of the entire urban order. Police, judicial, and city government functions were housed in the central market hall, before they split off into specialized buildings during the nineteenth century.

Richmond City Market in 1814. Detail of Market House of 1794 from 
Virginia Mutual Assurance Society policy. The three arches to the right were an addition.

The Richmond Market House was similar in form and detail to the 1773 Market House of Providence RI, before the addition of the third floor and the vestibule seen in this c 1870 photograph. The principal difference is in the single south end arch at the Richmond building as opposed to the three arches that underpinned the east wall here.
"A Plan and Profile for a Market or Town House," Plate 44, Market House from
Robert Morris, Select Architecture, 1755. This image was probably an influential source
for the builders of the Richmond City Market Hall of 1794.
Every market stood in some sort of precinct or square associated with the boundaries of the market regulations. The original market boundaries must have been informal, because in 1793, before building a market house, the Common Hall tasked a committee with the laying out of a market square. This square was somewhat different in form from the current market district. It occupied a 150-by-300-foot rectangle between the platted town and the creek. This square spanned Main Street, with equal space to either side of the street. The east end of the new stone bridge over Shockoe Creek projected fifty feet into the center of the west side of the square.  The brick Market House was built in 1794 on the north side of the street and the southern half of the square must have served as an open-air market.      

           Plat of Market Square, Minutes of the Common Council, 21 Dec. 1793.

The old frame hall was was torn down and sold, except for an addition that served as a fish market, that was retained for a while (malodorous fish markets were usually restricted to a separate structure).  A plan was been drawn up by December of 1793 and the building was contracted out in the following spring under the direction of a committee appointed by the Common Hall. Records indicate that the brickwork was executed by Bartholomew Trueheart and the woodwork by Reuben George. 

The building measured thirty feet wide by one hundred feet long and appears to have been formed into eleven nine-foot bays, each containing an arched opening, although the later insurance drawing shows twelve arched bays in the main building and three in an extension to the north. A wide arch in the south end gave access to an eighteen-foot aisle flanked by six-foot-deep stalls corresponding to the arcade bays.  The west wall, which backed up to the creek, was lined with nine stalls. The five stalls on the east alternated with four openings to the exterior. The 18-foot-wide central space would have housed a double row of stalls in addition. At other markets in Virginia the interior stalls eventually tended to  accommodate mostly butchers, with vegetable sellers provided with stalls under awnings or sheds to each side.  The northern two bays (eighteen feet) accommodated a "meal house" in the northwest corner adjacent to an eighteen- by twenty-foot space labeled "country market" where farm produce could be displayed. 

                Plan of Market House, the Minutes of the Common Council, March 18, 1793

The 3,000 square-foot market house was originally conceived as a one-story building. But before it was completed, the Common Hall had added a second story that was used for public purposes, including meetings of the Common Hall, assemblies, balls, and occasionally as a temporary school or theater. The upper floor may not have been fully finished at first, but the Common Hall ruled that it was to be used henceforth as a place of meeting instead of the Henrico County Courthouse, where they had been meeting previously. 
Market area. Detail from Young's Map of 1809.
The Market Hall is marked with the letter "H."
The Cage is shown nearby, beside the
Shockoe Creek Bridge.

There is a gap in the city records, but the hall reappears in 1808, when the room above is to be fitted up and "conveniences provided for the called meetings of the hall". In 1811 and 1812, the market hall received  considerable attention. A partition was added to accommodate the offices of the Market Clerk and the High Constable. The city refurnished the upper room to serve as the hustings courtroom and gave the city's rifle company permission to hold meetings in the upper room.  At the same time posts and rails were place around the market square and the cage was repaired. A one-story addition of approximately 600 square feet was made to the north in 1812, seen in the 1814 insurance drawing above and the entire market house re-floored in brick to match the level of the new section.   

Eventually, as the adjoining land was laid out in lots, the market stood in the middle of a widened section of Seventeenth Street lined with shops. It was composed of a long arcaded loggia for stalls and a second-floor public hall. As the city grew, the market was gradually extended towards Grace Street, two "squares" or blocks to the north. As was the case at Richmond's Second Market, meat markets tended to separate from the other market sellers, although it is not clear what each of the sections of the market housed as it moved north. 

A city ordinance passed on October 2, 1829 appointed a Weigh Master to certify the quality and weight of "hay, fodder, and long forage" used to feed the city's horses and cattle. The Weigh Master or his deputy attended the Public Scales that had already been erected at the market from sunup to sundown every day except Sunday. This official served to protect citizens from recent "frequent and great abuses . . . in the sale of Hay, Fodder and other Long Forage, whereby considerable gain has attached to the seller, at the expense of the purchaser."

What appears to be a clock is shown in the pediment of the principal facade facing Main Street. This served as another representation of the ordering function of city government. Since each town set its own time in relation to the movement of the sun, it was necessary that there be an official timepiece by which watches and clocks could be set. At first the market did not have a bell. In 1793, the Governor had loaned a bell belonging to the capitol to be used as a public bell in the cupola of the nearby Masonic Hall (completed in 1787) to call alarms and signal the opening and closing of the market. The Cage (see below) was equipped with a bell, which may have superseded the one in the Masonic Hall as the official public bell until it was sold and the cage demolished in 1817-18.

The administration of justice at the the city's level was centered at the market hall. Punishment of minor offenses was prosecuted by exposure in the nearby stocks, a ducking stool, and by placement of those who were apprehended after 10:00 PM in the elaborate structure next to the market house that was called The Cage (see separate article here). The night watch was based at the market. Similarly, regional (county) justice was served at the Henrico County Courthouse and jail in the center of the original town and at the provincial (state) level at the Capitol and the new Virginia State Penitentiary on the western edge of the city. The three political scales were expressed architecturally at three points in the city, regionally in the east, locally at the center, and provincially in the west. Given the geographical barriers between sectors, each of the three polities were closely associated with an historic section of the city and with a differentiated building tissue.

Typically, this order was confirmed by civic pageantry organized during the period, when parades would originate at the courthouse, run past the market house, and climb Shockoe Hill to end at the Capitol, beginning as early as 1824, with the welcoming procession for Layfayette, and continuing with James Monroe in 1831, and numerous events connected with Washington's birthday [Christian].

Market Halls at Como (1215, left) and Peterborough (1671, right)

Market Typology [Richard Worsham]

The market hall is the earliest type of European government building. It is found from medieval Italy to the Netherlands in the Renaissance. From its earliest known example at Como in 1215, cited by Pevsner, the building type incorporated an arcaded market loggia on the ground floor and a single room above used for town hall and court. Although the government and market functions diverged in large cities during the late Middle Ages, the close identification of market and local government continued in regional market towns. The costs of local government were largely borne by the income derived from the stalls, as was its architectural manifestation in the form of an arcaded loggia. This pattern transferred for economic as much as political reasons to the colonies. Medieval market buildings with ground-floor arcades gave way to more classical forms, but the form most often remained very similar.

 Faneuil Hall, Boston, MA, before additions by Charles Bulfinch in 1809.

There were no market halls in the colonies until there was a sufficient population to require them. A small frame market house was built in Norfolk, possibly in the late seventeenth century. The form of the market hall was used for the frame Boston Town House in Massachusetts built in 1657 which stood in the middle of State Street. It was replaced in 1713 with the brick State House, which housed a merchant exchange on the first floor and the colonial government on the second. Faneuil Hall was built in 1740-42 and resembled many English-style market halls built during the following, years, including Richmond's First Market.

Virginia Capitol at Williamsburg

The arcades of the 1794 Market House at Richmond are related to a long tradition of civic architecture. The market are almost always associated with extended arcades for both practical and symbolic reasons. Examples of arcades at hand include court houses and the Williamsburg Capitol. As Carl Lounsbury has observed, the compass-headed window or door opening was generally reserved for public buildings. The Virginia examples had their models in England. The arched piazzas found at the Williamsburg Capitol and incorporated into courthouses in neighboring counties have their roots in English market halls and the courtyards of mercantile structures in London, Oxbridge colleges, and local buildings such as almshouses built in the seventeenth century. 

Market Hall, Fredericksburg, Virginia, 1817. Virginia's only surviving early market hall was located facing an enclosed market square on the interior of a city block.

Virginian political leaders were equally aware of the classical sources of civic architecture and of their intermediaries in England. The seventeenth- and eighteenth-century English use of the term piazza for a covered walk or portico is connected with the elite emulation of Italian Renaissance squares and is ultimately derived from the Roman forums. As Carl Lounsbury has noted, Christopher Wren observed of his Trinity College arcades that “according to the manner of the ancients, who made double walks . . . about the forum.” As in Virginia, English market halls stood in or adjacent to the squares provided for commerce in many market towns. Stalls displaying wares for sale were protected from the weather in an arcaded loggia beneath a second floor housing official functions. The American market took a different, but related form, in the late eighteenth century. The market house occupied the center of the market square, sometimes extending in a long line down the middle of a widened street to maximize access and ease of movement both for internal and external traffic.

Linear Market at Market Street seen from Front Street, Philadelphia PA, 1838

The Charleston City Market at Charleston. South Carolina seen from the lower end. The land on which the market stands was ceded to the city in 1788 and the market building were built between 1804 and 1830s. The linear structure consisted of a series of low,   buildings, of successively diluted form,  housing meat, vegetable, and fish markets extending away from  The temple-form Market Hall at the far end was built in 1841 to the designs of Edward Brickwell White.

In Virginia loggias were attached to the fronts of courthouses or capitol as places for the gathering of the community. They served to house the informal portion of the political or legal activity and for the rare opportunity for social interaction that life in a dispersed rural colony discouraged. It permitted, on specified days of each month, much the same purposes as the European square or ancient forum. In a way it was the forum turned inside out. The internally oriented European court or piazza, disposed in front of town halls, palaces or churches, became the arched or columned American piazza from which the citizens observed the cultivated landscape or the grassy public squares of the new republic. 

Hanover County Courthouse, Virginia, 1735

The way in which Americans approach landscape, as Carroll William Westfall has noted, is different from that found in Europe. “In the United States the greensward replaces the piazza. The result is a continuity between rural and urban in the built-upon and cultivated landscape that supports the polyvalent system of governmental jurisdictions defining the multiplicity of overlapping duties within the civil realm” [Westfall. The City in the Image of Man. Journal of Anthropological Psychology No. 11, 2002]. The early Richmond market hall stood at first, like the Virginia country courthouses and like the new Capitol on Shockoe Hill, on broad expanses of open land. One contemporary remembered the “green pasture” of the town common that extended from the market house down to Shockoe Creek. Eventually the area around the market was lined with shops and it took on a more enclosed form.

William Sheppard, Harper's Weekly.  First Market in 1868. The central archway is seen to the left. The buildings in the distance have likely been transposed into the
picture from elsewhere.

As the city grew the market at Seventeenth Street, now known as the Old Market, retained its significance. The large room on the second floor was known as "Military Hall" and filled a need for place to meet or drill among the city's military companies (later, in 1909, the Richmond Light Infantry Blues would be given its headquarters over the city's Second Market). In 1814, a Mr. Girard was given permission to conduct a military academy in the "upper part of the market house" [Common Hall, 6 Aug. 1814].

In 1817, the Common Hall, meeting on the upper floor, voted to extend the market hall "the whole length of the square from E (Main) to F (Franklin) streets. As part of this expansion to the north, a new one-story market building was linked to the old by a tower carried over Walnut Alley on an archway. The street on the west side was extended from Franklin to Grace Street as the market grew north. The city agreed in 1818 with the Adams heirs, who inherited the land north of the market, to extend the market toward Grace Street.

The market as shown on Mijacah Bates map of 1835 has a form familiar from larger urban markets of the early nineteenth century (like Alexander Paris’ Quincy Market in Boston), which feature a central hall surmounted by a dome or cupola.   The Common Council was asked to consider removing the upper floor of the original market house to correspond to the single-story northern addition, but didn't agree to the proposal. This would have created an architecturally balanced composition to either side of the central tower.

First Market in 1835. Detail from Mijacah Bates' map showing original market hall at the lower end, connected to the north wing by the wider central archway. Q is the recently erected Scale
 House. Until Shockoe Creek had been straightened out (old and new stream beds are both shown)
 shops could not be added along the west side of the square.

Detail, 1865 Panorama of the city from Church Hill [Library of Congress].

The central tower and the north wing are visible in the background of the 1865 Harper’s Magazine illustration shown below. The cupola is very clearly seen in an 1865 panorama taken from Church Hill. The cupola on top of the tower is of a style and form consistent with a date of c 1820. The market bell marked the opening and closing hours and was used to ring the alarm when the town was threatened by fire or other danger the bell survives in the current market shed. The bell was cracked during an alarm in the Civil War and was recast.

The First Market, closely associated with police work,  was the site of the semi-annual inspection of the police took place on 16 October 1871, presided over by Justice White, one of the police commissioners and Major Poe, the chief of police. Justice White complimented the seventy-five officers and privates for their appearance and discipline, after they lined up for inspection [Richmond Whig 50:81 (17 October 1871) 3].  

A snapshot of the market in the antebellum period concerns a peddler and well-known Richmond character named Isaac Soloman was fined for selling goods in the market square, where he was active beginning in the 1830s. During the “improvements” to the market house in 1854 he was evicted from the stand at the end of the First Market which he had occupied as a licensed hawker and peddler. “This was referred to the Committee on Markets, which, on November 13, 1854, reported that while it did not think the market should be used for the sale of dry goods, 'yet, in consideration of the petitioner, and his Father before him, have been permitted to occupy a stand at the Market House for such a length of time for the sale of dry goods, the Committee have granted him permission to have a stand for his cart, during Market hours, on the north side of the Arch on 17th Street; subject to be removed whenever deemed necessary'" [Herbert Tobias Ezekiel, The History of the Jews of Richmond from 1769 to 1917, 68].
By 1853, the market building was judged by a city committee to be inadequate. The section of the market "from Main Street to the arch opposite the Watch House" was replaced in the following year at  cost of $18,300. The Italianate-style two-story building was likely designed by the City Engineer, W. McGill.  The dramatic second floor featured tall arched windows and a cornice with paired brackets. It was supported on a long cast-iron colonnade terminating in an arcaded loggia at the south. The colonnade concealed an inner arcade on each side that aided in supporting the floor above.  A "window of appearances" with a balcony overlooked Main Street at the south end. This feature was a familiar feature of market/city halls and confirmed the building's role as a place from which public announcements were made. From this time on the old market was referred to as the "First Market." 

                 First Market as shown in Harper's Weekly in 1865. Note arched base of     
                                  tower and arcaded extensions to north. 

Detail from illustration in Harper's Weekly in 1862 showing the northern section
 of the market between Franklin and Grace streets and its cupola at center right.

Open market pavilions extended to Grace Street and hucksters lined adjoining streets on markets days. The market hall served as courtroom and police station in the years before and after the Civil War. The hall was used for various purposes, including polling station, convention hall and military drilling. In 1855, the city permitted the Western and Southern Commercial Convention to hold its meeting there. In 1862, it was the scene, not only of the assembly, conscripting, and meeting of troops but also the site of a charity ball and a hospital for wounded soldiers. 

 This detail from an 1876  panorama of Richmond by A. Hoen shows the First Market Hall 
at left with the cupola behind it.      
The Market Hall was the scene of a riot in 1870, when the mayor appointed by the Federal troops refused to turn over his post to the elected mayor. Federal soldiers and a recently enrolled opposition police force battled over the occupancy of the Market Hall.  The second floor was removed in the early twentieth century, leaving the loggia at the south end and a bell tower with a domed cupola at the north, connected by a long central colonnade.

           Third Building at Richmond’s First Market site plan from Sanborn Map of 1889.
Photo of first state (built 1854) below on left and with second-floor hall removed on the
 right. The map shows that the north wing has been widened with overhanging sheds so that
 the central arch has been embedded with the building.

In 1913, the city replaced the First Market with a new building, now also gone, seen below. Like its predecessors, it put a classical facade to Main Street, but it provided the sanitation and refrigeration that enclosed markets could supply.  Unlike the older market houses, it did not include any assembly or office space above to functionally link the market with the political life. The new building announced its use as a meat market by incorporating a line of classical bucrania or cattle skull ornaments in the frieze over the entrance. It was still understood to be necessary to hang the market bell in a cupola on the roof.